The pope trusted her. She taught the family. And now they teach us.
Most of those in the room in South Korea were young Americans, still in their 20s. Their beverage of choice was more likely to be beer than wine; their emphasis, more on quantity than quality. But the commander of those F-16 pilots of the 80th Fighter Squadron planned to do something about that.
“I wanted to broaden their education,” said Lt. Col. Jack Sine ’90, an engineering grad, of his pilots stationed in November 2009 about 150 miles south of Seoul at Kunsan Air Force Base, on the west side of the Korean peninsula by the Yellow Sea.
“I wanted to make them into officers, not just pilots.”
He knew the man for the job.
Sine’s senior year college roommate was Bill Whiting ’90, one of 10 grandchildren of John Mariani Sr., founder of an import company by the name of Banfi Vintners, which grew into the leading wine importer in the U.S. as well as into a producer of some of the world’s finest wines. Whiting, a marketing major while at UD, now serves as Banfi’s director of wine education, lecturing at schools, coordinating events such as winemaker dinners, and educating Banfi’s sales force and its distributor network. “I work the market,” he said.
“I’d seen Bill the last time I was in Washington,” Sine said. “Squadrons and their families look for social things to do together. I told Bill, ‘If I ever command a squadron, I’m going to make you come out and do a wine tasting for the squad and their families.’”
Sine got his command. But since it was in Korea, a remote assignment, and squad members were away from their families, Sine told Whiting, “You don’t have to come out here.”
But Whiting said he was coming, and he did. Banfi’s distributor in Seoul provided the wines. Food to pair with them was another matter. Olives and cheese in Korea are about as rare as kimchi in Italy. But with a little help from their friends, Sine and Whiting put together the ingredients for a tasting.
Sine marveled at his old roommate’s ability to connect with his audience. “This wasn’t,” Sine said, “a culinary institute or a fundraising event” — more typical venues for a director of wine education. Nevertheless, Sine observed, the young pilots did not focus on how much they could drink but sat and listened and learned.
“One of the men was getting married and going to honeymoon in Thailand,” Sine added. “He asked Bill about getting him one of the wines; he wanted to have it in his hotel room in Thailand. But, when Bill didn’t get back to him, he assumed he was too busy.”
Whiting is indeed busy, on the road 200 days a year. “Sometimes when I wake up,” he said, “I don’t know whether I’m home or in a hotel room, whether, when I try to get out of one side of the bed, I’ll hit a wall.”
But when the young pilot and his bride arrived at their Thailand hotel room, there waiting for them was a bottle of the wine.
“Bill’s just a class act,” Sine said.
Whiting is one of four sons of Joan Mariani, the only daughter of Banfi founder John Mariani Sr., whose sons, John Jr. and Harry, built a successful import business into one dominant in its field. One of Whiting’s cousins (one of Harry’s four children), Katy Mariani Goodrich ’85, is a UD commercial design grad who now has her own interior design firm. At UD she introduced her future husband, marketing major Marc Goodrich ’84, to wine. Today, he is executive vice president and chief operating officer of Banfi Vintners. The company’s executive committee comprises Goodrich and co-CEOs Cristina Mariani-May (a daughter of John Jr.) and James Mariani (one of Katy’s brothers).
Whiting likes to say, “Facts tell. Stories sell.” Banfi sells a lot of wine. And it has a very good story, beginning with why the company is named Banfi and not Mariani.
John Mariani Sr., who established the firm in 1919, was born in 1895 in Torrington, Conn. He had an aunt. But Teodolinda Banfi was not just any aunt.
Mariani’s father died when John was 9; his mother — with her six children — returned to Italy. They lived with John’s mother’s sister, Teodolinda Banfi, who took an active interest in educating the children. At the time, Teodolinda directed the household staff of the Cardinal Archbishop of Milan, Achille Ratti, whose mother had adopted Teodolinda, orphaned at an early age.
In 1922, following the death of Benedict XV and a conclave that voted 14 times, Cardinal Ratti was elected pope and took the name Pius XI. History recognizes his concern for social and economic justice, his condemnation of racism, and his urging of the involvement of laity in the church. During his papacy, in 1929, the Lateran Treaty established the Vatican as a sovereign nation. Pius XI’s attitude toward Italian secularism and the rise of the dictator Benito Mussolini appears to be represented in the pope’s establishing the feast of Christ the King.
Among Pius XI’s early appointments as pope was his selection of a manager for his household. His request that Teodolinda be appointed was, according to the telling of the story on Banfi Vintner’s website, “viewed with amazement — and ignored for months — because never before had a woman, other than a nun, lived in the Sistine Palace.” The pope repeated his instructions. And he kept repeating them until Teodolinda arrived to head his household staff. As in Milan, part of her responsibility in Rome was the selection of wine for the pope’s meals.
During his days with his aunt in Milan, the young John Mariani Sr. had received an extraordinary education on fine wine. He returned to the United States to found in 1919 in New York City’s Little Italy a company that bears his aunt’s name. Since 1919 also saw the 18th Amendment to the Constitution bring Prohibition to the U.S., the Banfi firm imported olive oil and other Italian foods until the 21st Amendment in 1933 repealed Prohibition and allowed John Mariani Sr. to make use of his knowledge of fine wine.
Despite a major interruption caused by World War II, Banfi established itself as an importer of fine wine. The company took a step beyond that in 1967 when John Sr.’s sons, John Jr. and Harry, went to Italy in search of a new product. They met with a growers’ cooperative whose grapes produced a fizzy Lambrusco. They encouraged the growers to experiment with blends and techniques, eventually finding a combination that produced a wine that was sweet, that had a low level of alcohol and that offered a market used to carbonated drinks a wine they could embrace.
Banfi had a new product. And it was a hit.
“In 1969,” Goodrich said, “Banfi sold its first case of Riunite. In 1981, it sold 11.5 million cases.” Riunite — with its “On ice … so nice” campaign — was the No. 1-selling imported wine in the U.S. for 26 years. It still has annual sales of 2.5 million cases. By 1980, Banfi was importing more wine from Italy than France and Germany combined were exporting to the U.S.
In 1988, Banfi acquired the import rights to Concha y Toro, selling 90,000 cases a year. A decade later, sales were 3 million cases. Banfi also introduced the brand Walnut Crest, which was produced by an affiliate winery of Concha y Toro. Walnut Crest became Chile’s No. 2 brand and also one of Banfi’s, and America’s, top imports. Other Banfi imports include Bolla, Cecchi, Château Tanunda, Fontana Candida, Sartori and Trivento as well as three niche categories: Marsala from Florio, Wisdom & Warter sherry from Spain, and Stone’s Ginger Wine from England.
But the founding of the company and its growth as an importer are just part of the Banfi story. There is also the tale of Castello Banfi.
In the 1950s, John Jr. and Harry Mariani had realized that most Americans were not drinking wine. With Riunite, they changed that; they got Americans to fall in love with wine. But the brothers also realized something about the American market for the Italian wine then being produced. Although sales had grown large, further growth in the market had a handicap: Italian wineries in the middle of the 20th century were just not in the same class as the French. When people thought of fine wine, they thought of Burgundy and Bordeaux, not of any region in Italy.
The Mariani brothers were going to change that.
Much of the profit from the Riunite bonanza was invested in a new project for Banfi. Banfi was going to produce fine Italian wines of its own. The brothers would start from scratch, planting new vineyards, building a new winery and conducting the clonal research to bring Italian wines to world-class level.
The Marianis turned to the land of Tuscany and a grape of ancient origins but, in the mid-20th century, not for the most part of particularly high regard. The name of the grape, Sangiovese, reputedly comes from the Latin for “blood of Jove.”
Sangiovese traces its origins to the Etruscans, inhabitants of the Italian peninsula before the Romans. Among the explanations for its lack of regard in the mid-20th century was that it was often blended with inferior wine. On the other hand, one of its many clones, Brunello di Montalcino, had achieved a reputation as a very fine wine; but it also had become very rare. Winemaking is a very complicated blend, not just of land and weather but also of genetic research and careful attention to production — and of timing.
Banfi’s timing was again superb.
In 1978, the Marianis established Castello Banfi, which comprises 7,100 acres (and, indeed, a castle). The firm did extensive research on Sangiovese, starting with a possible 600 clones of the grape, concentrating on 180 of them, and selecting a final complementary 15 clones. Where the various clones are planted (the Tuscany land of Castello Banfi has 29 major soil zones) and in what proportion help determine the composition of the final product.
Both the process and the product have been successes.
Castello Banfi is the first winery in the world, as its website notes, “to be awarded international recognition for exceptional environmental, ethical and social responsibility (ISO 14001 and SA8000) as well as to be an international leader in customer satisfaction (ISO 9001:2000).”
Banfi also has received Winery of the Year recognition from both Wine Enthusiast and Wine & Spirits Magazine. And among Wine Spectator’s Top 10 Wines has been Castello Banfi Brunello di Montalcino Riserva Poggio all’Oro.
The winery makes several other Brunellos and sells a line called Banfi Tuscany, wines —such as Centine and a variety of Chiantis — that are more widely available and less expensive but also have been well-received.
Working with Banfi’s Italian operations and traveling to Italy four times a year is part of Marc Goodrich’s job. After graduating from UD in marketing, Goodrich worked at NCR Corp. and later had his own consulting firm. Compared to his earlier work, his job now, he admitted, “has a certain amount of romance.”
And, he pointed out another bonus coming from his work: “It’s nice to sit down and taste your own product. And it is enjoyable to be in a restaurant and see other people enjoying your product.”
But however enjoyable the job and the product, producing and selling wine is a business.
Banfi is big; for three decades, it has been the U.S.’s leading importer of wine. But, as Goodrich pointed out, it has customers — such as Kroger, Costco, Wal-Mart — that are huge. And some of its competitors are divisions of immense companies. “Giant companies can bring in a lot; and what sells, sells,” he said.
Banfi’s approach is different. “Everything in our portfolio has a strategy, has a purpose. We try to avoid overlap among our suppliers. We have to be selective.”
And, he said, “we keep looking for new products, new ideas. Ten years ago nobody drank Malbec; now it’s hot. Riesling was big in the 1970s; it’s now making a comeback.”
Katy Goodrich, as one of the 10 grandchildren of Banfi founder John Mariani Sr., has seen dramatic changes in wine and in Banfi. She also saw, a couple years ago when she and her husband, Marc, came back to UD for Reunion Weekend, dramatic changes in the University of Dayton. But, she said, “Sitting on a porch at 2 a.m., you realize some things don’t change.”
Businesses and universities change, but it is change that evolves around human beings, people whose nature is to gather, to talk, to remember, to plan, and to eat and drink together.
Tastes in wine change. Tastes in food change. But human beings continue to sit down together as family and friends for meals of food and wine. The wine business is, in many cases and in many ways, a family business. Katy Goodrich points to families running the companies of some of the wines that Banfi imports — the Sartori family whose wine bears its name and the Guilisasti family of Concha y Toro. “It goes beyond the companies,” she said of their relationships. “We see each other, do things together, vacation together.”
The Mariani family has now for three generations been part of an experience that dates back millennia. Although the business has grown large, Katy Goodrich said, “it looks like it will stay in the family.”
A number of members of the fourth generation, she said, are interested in the business. The oldest of the fourth generation — Marc and Katy’s son, Robert — has prepared by graduating from Cornell University’s School of Hotel Administration and is now working at Empire Merchants, a large wine distributor. “He’s in the industry, learning about it,” Katy said. That’s much the same experience Katy’s cousin, Bill Whiting, had when he worked at Dayton’s Heidelberg Distributing.
Many a family business has had a rocky or fatal transition from one generation to the next. But, Katy Goodrich said, “We’ve been wise with long-range planning to ensure it can go smoothly.”
Mariani planning in the past has been highly successful. Wine in the U.S. used to be just something to drink and that only occasionally. But the Mariani family changed that.
“Now,” Marc Goodrich said, “wine is part of the meal, part of the culture.”
Thomas M. Columbus, retired editor of this magazine, is spending his newly found time away from the office stomping grapes in his garage.
Facts on the company, the wines it imports and the wines it produces — as well as a highly informative section (under Banfi Vintners) on wine in general
‘RIUNITE ON ICE … THAT’S NICE’
Videos of ads from the hugely successful advertising campaign of the ’70s and ’80s
One of the best places to learn about and enjoy wine is at a wine tasting. The Dayton area alone has dozens each week at wine retailers, grocery stores and restaurants. If you live in or will be visiting Dayton, you can find information in the wine blog of the Dayton Daily News.
WINE FOR DUMMIES
An easy-to-read, very useful text used by UD’s Tom Davis in UDI 350 — History and Evaluations of World Wines; Davis also points to the Dummies series’ books on red, white, French and Italian wines.
Pi Beta Phi is known for being an organization of firsts: the first national women’s fraternity and one of the founding members of the National Panhellenic Council. The most recent first comes from the University of Dayton’s own Ohio Iota Chapter: the Ebeling-Ross Pi Beta Phi Scholarship fund, the first scholarship endowment by a UD sorority.
When fully endowed at $25,000, the scholarship will benefit at least one sister each year who demonstrates Pi Phi values as modeled by the women who founded the Ohio Iota Chapter, Martha Ebeling and Lois Ross.
“Mrs. Ebeling and Mrs. Ross were chosen to be honored because of their outstanding leadership in the community, both locally and nationally, and because of their spirit of generosity — of their time, talent and treasure,” says Heidi Azaloff ‘94, chief of the scholarship endowment committee. “The endowed scholarship celebrates their qualities and encourages Pi Phis to always aim higher.”
The Dayton Alumnae Club of Pi Beta Phi matches each gift donated to the scholarship, up to $5,000. They expect to reach the endowment goal by June 2011 and award a sister a scholarship for the next academic year.
“The scholarship is a tremendous example to students of how they can give back and make a difference,” says Joan Schiml, director of annual giving.
Current sorority members hope the scholarship will continue to strengthen their ties.
“We consider ourselves sisters,” says Tonica Johnson ’12. “Having a scholarship to help those in need is a great way to secure that bond that we have with each other.”
For more information, visit http://www.supportUD.piphi.udayton.edu.No Comments
Without a surprise offer to help, Brittany Hughbanks wouldn’t even be attending the University of Dayton, let alone graduating in May with a degree in exercise science. Every year, Rick Pfleger ’77 and Claire Tierney Pfleger ’78, family friends from her hometown of Indianapolis, quietly write a check to cover part of her tuition after they learned UD was her top choice but her family couldn’t afford it.
“I’ll never forget that,” she says. “I always thought I’d go to Indiana or Purdue or somewhere close, but they made it possible to come here. They’re all good schools, but it’s not like here.”
Thanks to the couple’s generosity, future University of Dayton students will receive some extra help, too. They’ve just launched the Richard J. and Claire T. Pfleger Endowed Scholarship.
The couple also funded the renovation of The Hangar, a popular Kennedy Union gathering spot.
“We truly believe in stewardship and the concept of giving back the gifts that God has given us,” says Rick Pfleger, a University trustee and retired vice president for North American sales at Juniper Networks. “I believe God blessed us for a reason.”
Growing up in a devoutly Catholic family in a modest 900-square-foot home, Pfleger recalls his father pulling out a red metal box and dividing up his weekly paycheck, first setting aside money for the local parish, then groceries, then the house payment. The final compartment he reserved for entertainment.
“That’s the one I had my eye on,” he says, smiling. “There were many, many weeks when that box didn’t have anything in it. I remember watching my dad do this every week and learning from both my parents. They were super volunteers, both of them. They volunteered like it was their jobs.”
That’s why Pfleger gives back. He co-chaired a $110 million campaign for the Archdiocese of Indianapolis, where he raised millions of dollars to help the less fortunate in central and southern Indiana. He also sponsored a project to put computers in all the inner-city Catholic schools in Indianapolis. He sits on the board of trustees for Cathedral High School in Indianapolis and recently completed his board term for the archdiocese’s Catholic Community Foundation.
The Pflegers also sponsor three students at Cathedral High School, where the couple helped underwrite a major expansion. Pfleger is very active in his local parish, Saint Simon the Apostle, where he has coached, led the stewardship team and served as an executive member of the advancement team.
“When it comes to charitable giving, one of my favorite quotes is from Winston Churchill: ‘We make a living by what we get, we make a lifetime by what we give,’” he says.
Pfleger met his wife, a special education graduate, and seven lifelong friends at UD. Daughter Lindsey followed in their footsteps and earned a bachelor’s in entrepreneurship and an MBA. He credits the school for giving him “a great education” and strengthening his character and values.
“What’s happened on this campus knocks your socks off,” he says. “Dan Curran has incredible vision — and looks out five to 10 years as well as anyone I know. People want to know they’re giving to something that’s moving upward. Seeing bricks and mortar is great, but I believe that long-lasting gifts of education are the best you can give.”No Comments
This issue of the magazine includes exactly 238 class notes. They run nearly 20,000 words. In my time working on the magazine and its predecessor, UDQ, I’ve easily read more than 10,000 notes, most of them two or three times each as part of our proofreading process.
They’re still my favorite section of the magazine.
There is an Italian saying, that when the game is over the kings and pawns go back in the same box. Class notes reflect that egalitarian spirit. In one note, you might read of a manager promoted to vice president; in the next, a parent promoted to grandparent, both notes set in the same font and size. In class notes, they do not compete.
If you read Page 44, to take just one example, you’ll learn that Father Marty Solma is now provincial of the Marianist Province of the U.S. and then that Ann Donovan Bowman and her husband, Bob, just retired and enjoy passing the days eating lunch together and watching the golfers on the fairway of hole No. 1, just off their deck. Both notes reveal something of the mysteries of this life.
Throughout class notes, true loves are married, babies born, vacations taken, careers enhanced — the everyday stuff of the lives we cherish. Many of us wouldn’t have a prayer of naming last decade’s Nobel or Heisman winners, but we’d go on and on if asked to name those who’ve loved and supported us. We might admire the former, but it’s the latter who bring us happiness and meaning.
In this 250th anniversary of the birth of Blessed William Joseph Chaminade, I wonder if it is useful to ask whether this is a Marianist way of reading the class notes. Chaminade’s sense of mission was influenced profoundly by the revolutions of his times. As a young priest, he lived under a French monarch whose presumed divine right marked his power. “Le roi le veut,” he pronounced when he wearied of debates. The king wills it.
And then one July day in 1789, the king’s power evaporated, replaced by a people’s assembly that devolved into an intemperate mob, forcing oaths on priests, prisons on nobles and the guillotine on countless souls, including the Terror’s architect, Robespierre himself. The revolution had replaced the tyranny of a monarch with the tyranny of a mob. The dignity of the individual counted for little under either.
It was this chaos that Chaminade fled when he went into exile in Spain. He returned committed to finding new methods for new times, founding a religious family of laity, sisters, brothers and priests working toget- her and dedicated to Mary’s mission. He ensured a dignified place and voice for all who share the Marianists’ deep faith and commitment to meaningful service — through leadership when necessary, as it so often is.
I see this place and hear this voice in class notes, where the listings proceed without favor. For years, I’ve had a private tradition of always beginning with “In Memoriam,” the notices of deaths, when I proofread each issue’s class notes. It’s a powerful reminder that these aren’t the classifieds they resemble at a casual glance.
In each few sentences, there is the dignity and beauty of God’s children — the immense joy of newborns like little Evan James Mooney (Page 51) and the compassion of caregivers like Michael Licata (Page 47), a coordinator of substance abuse for his county sheriff’s office. I want to know so much more about Michael Gaffney’s yearlong stint as Muhammed Ali’s personal photographer (Page 44), Patricia Brennan Scott’s fabulously titled book (Page 49) and Bob Ciullo’s Flyer gamewatches with his infant twin grandsons, Robbie and Rezo Lucarelli (Page 42).
A class note in this magazine signifies a bond that simultaneously uplifts and transcends each individual. That’s why I love them so. The participants in this Marianist community are blessed indeed.No Comments
Between September 2008 and October 2009, Mike Fanelli ’72 visited 32 countries, including Vietnam, India, Israel and Jordan. But for the purchase of three intercontinental flight tickets, he did it on $50 a day. Here’s how:
1. Travel light “You can use Internet cafés instead of carrying a computer,” Fanelli said. “I traveled with only one pair of pants, three shirts and three pairs of socks.”
2. Avoid hotels Stay at hostels or sleep on couches. “Hostels are cheap, but couch-surfing is free. Go to Couchsurfing.com and create an account, and you can find someone with similar interests willing to put you up.”
3. Use Lonely Planet guidebooks These guidebooks offer helpful tips and phrases for 195 countries and can usually be swapped with other travelers or purchased at hostels.
4. Eat local “I recommend eating street food, which is often as cheap as 50 cents or a dollar. But make sure it’s cooked beforehand. Hostels also usually offer simple free breakfasts.”
5. When you can’t walk or bike, use public transportation like buses or subways Hostels often have rickety, single-gear bikes available for free or cheap rent. Taxi drivers are not to be trusted.
6. Use ATMs to get local currency “There are ATMs in practically every country. Don’t use travelers’ checks. Nobody takes them anymore.”
7. Don’t have a plan “I know that most people would be uncomfortable without one, but having a plan robs the trip of the spontaneity and adventure that’s the entire point of the trip.”No Comments
Don’t confuse the new Roesch Chair in the Social Sciences, Jack Bauer, with the character in the drama 24 who shares his name. While the TV Bauer is chasing down terrorists, this associate professor is researching happiness. Some tips from his research on a happier life:
1. Be lucky Genes give us a “happiness set point” (really it’s a range). Didn’t win the happy-gene lottery? Don’t despair. You can alter your set point by taking action — notably actions that you find meaningful and that build relationships.
2. Don’t be poor (but help those who are) The happy peasant is an anomaly. In general, people who don’t routinely have enough food and shelter are less happy than people who do. If you’re struggling for survival, maximizing pleasure is a luxury. If you’re not struggling, helping those who are will help yourself.
3. But money isn’t enough The rich are, on average, happier than the middle class, but only by a bit. Economists have shown it takes a $75,000/year increase to yield a tiny bump in happiness — and it’s likely short-lived. Why so little return on investment? We adapt our expectations to want more, keeping our happiness right where we were.
4. Buy experiences, not stuff How you spend your money matters. Experiences like going to a concert or ballgame register more deeply in memory and are often shared with those close to us, which itself breeds happiness. Material goods are often status-oriented, which provides only a brief rush of pleasure and ultimately divides us.
5. Go with the flow Do things that get you focused and in the moment, performing without self-consciousness. Psychologists call this “flow.” Sports, movies, reading books, socializing, hobbies, sex and work activities can all produce it. Flow takes initial effort, but once you start, flow kicks in. When you’re done, you’re energized. You’ve had the experience of being alive. And you’re happier.
6. Happiness isn’t everything In addition to all that, plan for a life of learning and seeking new perspectives on life generally and your own life — to help round out what the Greeks called eudaimonia, the balance of happiness and wisdom. People who make efforts toward such wisdom tend to get it; those who don’t, don’t.No Comments
The San Francisco Giants’ World Series championship isn’t the only thing UD alumni in the Golden State have been celebrating.
Alumni living in California — and visitors from other parts of the country — recently joined President Daniel J. Curran with the San Francisco chapter at the Cartoon Art Museum to kick off “Celebrate UD in California,” a series of alumni chapter events along the West Coast Oct. 6-9.
The San Francisco event was followed by a Grammy Museum tour and reception with the Los Angeles chapter and ended with a tailgate hosted by the San Diego chapter to cheer on the football team’s 21-20 victory over the University of San Diego.
At the Cartoon Art Museum, alumni viewed hundreds of pieces of original cartoon and animation art — from editorial cartoons to comic books, graphic novels to anime and Sunday funnies to Saturday morning cartoons.
After roaming through five galleries of exhibitions, Curran sat down with alumni and gave an update about what’s been happening at UD. Frank Pauer, University of Dayton Magazine art director, then gave a presentation discussing his inspiration for cartoon sketches and how he incorporates them into his design and publications. He created, special for the event, a cartoon sketch of the Golden Gate Bridge over the University of Dayton that was handed out as a gift to all guests.
“This was the first alumni chapter event I have attended in more than a decade, and Frank’s talk was perfectly coordinated with the venue,” said Phil Anthony ’74. “He revealed the thoughts behind his illustrations and designs and had a central theme and wry humor that placed UD in new light.”
With confidence gained by the success of the Cartoon Art Museum event, the 797-member chapter began planning its first Christmas off Campus, which it held Dec. 11 to assist the San Francisco Food Bank in sorting, packaging and readying food for distribution to struggling families in the area. Chapter members with event ideas should send them to chapter president Peter Morabito ’99 at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Five places to leave your heart in San Francisco
1. Alcatraz This island is full of history and beauty. Once home to some of America’s most infamous criminals, it now harbors rare flowers, marine wildlife and the West Coast’s first and oldest operating lighthouse.
2. The cable car Experience one of the oldest traditions in San Francisco. Developed in 1873 to help people travel uphill, these cars operate seven days a week and cost $5 to ride — be sure to get a front seat.
3. Golden Gate Park After visiting the bridge, stop by this 1,017-acre park covered by grassy meadows, wooded bike trails and secluded lakes. Keep an eye out for the herd of roaming bison or head indoors to see the Japanese Tea Garden.
4. Chinatown In the largest Chinatown outside of Asia, you’ll experience herb pharmacies, fortune cookie factories, fresh produce markets, seafood and poultry shops, and countless fine restaurants.
5. Fisherman’s Wharf Take an early morning stroll down “Fish Alley” to view the fishermen at work or visit some of the more exotic attractions on the Wharf, such as the Ripley’s Believe It or Not! Museum or the Wax Museum.
[Faster.] [Higher.] [Stronger.]
A University of Dayton law graduate is at the center of London’s efforts to host the 2012 Olympic Games and revitalize its long-neglected East End.
Commuting to work every morning is something of an epic journey for Terry Miller ’77.
She drives 10 miles from her bucolic 15th-century farmhouse in tiny Alfold, Surrey (a county bordering London’s southeast), to Guildford rail station, takes a 30-mile train ride to Waterloo International, walks 1.5 miles along the spectacularly historic Thames River Path to London Bridge, cruises 10 minutes on an express boat down the Thames to Canary Wharf (once the busiest dock in the world and now one of London’s two busiest financial districts), and walks a few blocks to her office on the 21st floor of the gleaming, 21st-century-constructed One Churchill Place.
There, through the towering building’s vast paneled windows, Detroit-born Miller, the general counsel of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG), quietly surveys the steadily developing 700-acre Olympic Park. Since her appointment in 2006, Miller has watched this once industrial, contaminated land in east London grow into a “big five” cluster of venues — the Olympic Stadium, Aquatics Center, Velodrome, Olympic Village, press center — that will host one-third of the XXX Olympiad’s events in 2012.
But Miller doesn’t gaze from the window for long. The games are less than two years away, and while Londoners may applaud construction milestones or grumble about the costs, Miller spends her days — and evenings and weekends — focusing on the mammoth legal task of making London 2012 happen.
The job involves managing a legal team of 25 — 10 of them from Freshfields, a global law firm and official legal services provider for the games — to offer advice on all aspects of LOCOG’s operations, including meeting the International Olympic Committee’s Host City Contract terms, implementing sponsorship and supply contracts — there are more than 7,000 — and protecting the London 2012 brand. When it comes to the games, there’s little that Miller’s team is not involved in.
“Our legal team is really integrated into the business,” says Miller, 59, between sips of coffee in a LOCOG meeting room, its door open wide to capture staff banter and panoramic views beyond the many desks. “There’s nothing in the games that’s not hugely interactive.”
It’s an autumnal Friday morning and, in Friday spirit, Miller is wearing jeans (and good walking shoes). Her grey hair is cut just above her shoulders, and when she talks, she is still, her countrified chapped hands cradling her mug, her minimally made-up brown eyes looking askance, and her American tone infected with British-isms and enunciated T’s, suggesting a long sojourn in England (22 years, to be precise; her British husband of 37 years, journalist Jonathan Miller, moved the family to London in 1988, and she was naturalized in 1996). “We have our base camp here, but most of the time, team members are out meeting with people from all other areas.”
Currently, that legal team is working with LOCOG human resources to recruit 70,000 volunteer “Gamesmakers” to help deliver the games.
“The HR team has responsibility for setting up the program,” explains Miller, “but worked with legal to make sure we covered issues like where we set the age that someone can volunteer. We wanted to encourage youth to apply, but volunteers under a certain age can’t work the same shifts as an adult, so we had to work through that.
“We also had issues around using ‘Gamesmakers’ as a title,” she continues. “There might be someone else who has the name ‘Gamesmakers,’ right? So we checked to make sure we could use it. We worked with the technology people to set up the online system. We had to ensure that the online structure allowed, in the best way possible, people with disabilities to use it, or that they could apply in other ways.”
Although her 5’2” frame exudes calm, Miller is acutely aware of the ticking clock. She mentions three times in 90 minutes that she needs to finalize most legal matters by the end of 2011.
“You can’t be doing huge deals two days before the games.”
Her priorities include liaising with the independent company producing the games’ opening and closing ceremonies to ensure that its policies, procedures and contracts are consistent with LOCOG’s; recruiting a ceremonies lawyer to deal with performing rights and talent negotiations; finalizing arrangements and contracts for third-party venues (65 percent of events will occur in commercial venues outside the Olympic Park, the highest percentage in recent games history); completing contracts for approximately 25 training venues; arranging the Olympic Park’s hand-over from the Olympic Delivery Authority, which has been building it; and detailing documentation about how LOCOG will use the Royal Parks, specifically Hyde and Greenwich parks and the Horse Guard’s Parade area.
Does that mean Miller will just kick back at games time, her job done?
Not exactly. Come 2012, Miller will oversee the management of each venue’s roaming brand protection team to control instances of infringement or ambush.
“If we need to take action such as getting an injunction to stop an infringement,” she explains, “Freshfields will have the additional support to take the case to court. We’re spending time now with Freshfields preparing legal action templates so that they can rush into court if necessary.
“Ad hoc issues might also arise, where we need to consider legal rights and obligations, like if equipment isn’t delivered the day before an event in the main stadium. How people deal with that is important because at games time everyone’s immediate reaction is ‘I don’t care! I’ll just call up whoever!’ to get a substitute. What you want to say is, ‘You have the right to get a substitute,’ and log it as a breach of contract, so that when the dust settles, you can make a claim.
“And there will be insurance-related issues. For example, among the first sports in 2012 is eventing [an equestrian sport], one of the most dangerous sports, so in addition to doing everything possible to make it as safe as we can we need to have protocols if something happens to the horses, to the riders. We need to have procedures in place, understand where we might have liability and have insurance to cover that.”
Learning about intellectual property, sports law and brand protection has challenged Miller, whose previous legal roles — as a partner and international general counsel of Goldman Sachs International in London, partner in the firm Kirkpatrick and Lockhart, and branch chief of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s enforcement division — had little to do with these areas.
“It’s been a huge education,” she says. “I didn’t really know the sports world except to the limited extent that I’m a competitor [she owns seven horses and regularly competes in eventing], but I didn’t really understand sports law or intellectual property. When we did the 8 1/2-minute handover ceremony [during Beijing 2008’s closing ceremony], we had to get rights to everything shown, sung or presented, plus organize all the contracts with our talent — David Beckham, Leona Lewis, Jimmy Page. We needed rights to new music. It was a lot of work, but it’s been amazingly interesting.”
As for protecting the London 2012 brand, LOCOG has all U.K. rights to the Olympic name, symbol, trademark — meaning any name containing “Olympic”, the rings, the Paralympics’ agitos symbol — until the end of 2012 and was obligated to expand U.K. laws of the 1940s and ’60s to protect Olympic and Paralympic symbols. The act passed in April 2006 for this purpose also enables LOCOG to protect against ambush — not the actual use of the rings, for instance, but marketing campaigns that refer to the games in a way that people might assume is official, yet isn’t.
“We do everything we can to educate the industry,” says Miller, who hasn’t yet gone to court with infringement or ambush cases because violators have backed down. “The team includes four brand protection specialists who work with the IP legal sector, tourism representatives, hotels, trade associations, to get out the message that you can do certain things but not others, and that we’re obliged to the IOC and our sponsors to act in ambush or infringement cases.”
LOCOG has also formed an anti-IP crime group with external partners, including the Metropolitan Police, to deal with such cases as well as with ticket scams and touting (scalping).
“We took many precautions around the 2012 emblem when it was announced in 2007,” Miller explains, “because while you can’t protect a number like 2-0-1-2, you can protect a distinctive shape and how it’s used.”
Striding past the Tate Modern (converted in 2000 from a disused power station) on her walk to London Bridge and then sailing through shiny, thriving Canary Wharf (transformed only 20 years ago from declining docks), Miller is reminded daily of the enduring power of regeneration and, therefore, of one of LOCOG’s central commitments: to revive long-neglected east London. Her daily walk has also made this much-lauded attorney (Legal Week’s General Counsel of the Year in 2006, The Lawyer’s Hot 100 in 2007, The Times Law 100 in 2008) acutely aware of accessibility issues that affect all of London and that the games can improve.
“You can’t really walk all along the river,” says Miller, who chairs the Accessibility and Inclusion Integration Group interagency forum, “because the walkway doesn’t continue around Clink Street. Buildings come up against the bank. And there’s no way to cross the river in an accessible way if you want to do a loop. You have problems if you’re able-bodied, but if you’re in a wheelchair, you have huge problems. You can’t go over cobblestones or over any bridge except the Millennium Bridge.
“We’re working with London’s mayor, among others, to develop a plan to make part of the river walk accessible — a huge benefit for people in wheelchairs, people with babies in pushchairs, and a small example of limited money having a big impact. If the river offers accessibility, numerous venues, like Greenwich, the Dome, ExCel, can be reached by boat. You can get the whole Brazilian wheelchair basketball team to the Paralympics in one big boat; otherwise, you’d need four specially equipped vans. It’s like when, two years ago, a mayoral disability office delivered ramps between piers and boats. I didn’t have to get hauled aboard by my elbows anymore, and people in wheelchairs could finally use the boats. Every day I bless the person who made that happen. That’s the kind of thing we can use the games to do because the games are happening on a particular day. We’ve got to do it now; we can’t just drift.”
As Miller talks about “using the power of the games to inspire change,” LOCOG’s tagline, her passion for making a difference is clear.
“We’ve committed that 10 percent of our volunteers will come from the Personal Best program,” she says, explaining how the program provides long-term unemployed people free training to qualify them to be 2012 volunteers.
“But because the program incorporates things like first-aid training, customer relations, event organizing, some people have gotten jobs already. That’s an example of creating opportunities for people who otherwise have no chance: because no one has ever employed them, no one will ever employ them. This puts them into an employment context, and that’s really important. If we miss this chance, it would really be a shame.”
Miller attests that her meticulously orchestrated daily journey to work — effectively spanning 50 miles, five centuries, four modes of transport — is “entirely for the purpose of getting some exercise,” but it illuminates a character that is disciplined, committed, patient and diligent. These attributes certainly have much to do with Miller’s journey from her childhood home in Detroit to one of London’s tallest buildings and most desirable legal jobs.
One of five children, with an accountant father and a stay-at-home mother, Miller recalls money being tight and starting part-time work at age 15.
“We were all expected to go to college,” she says, “but had to figure out how to get there, so I got a job at a library. I loved it. I loved reading and still do, and was one of those kids who’d come back from the library with a stack of books.”
Miller worked throughout her undergraduate years at University of Michigan at bookshops, libraries, even a sandwich joint called Mister Mini’s on Ann Arbor’s main drag.
“Aside from a couple of bad babysitting jobs, I’ve never had a job I hated,” Miller says. “But being the LOCOG’s general counsel is certainly one of the best legal jobs in the world. When I left Goldman Sachs, I had about 180 lawyers in Europe and Asia on my team who knew much more about their areas than I did, so I delegated a lot more. Here, I’ve been involved from the beginning, paralleling my 1989 career start at Goldman. It was essentially a start-up business in Europe and Asia — there were only two lawyers in London, I was the second in Europe and only the third outside the U.S. — which meant you did and set up everything. I really liked that. Coming to LOCOG meant coming back to a start-up.”
Paul Deighton, LOCOG chief executive and former COO of Goldman Sachs in Europe, worked closely with Miller at Goldman and encouraged her to try for the LOCOG role; 200 others also applied.
“Every time there was a problem at Goldman, I used to ask, ‘What does Terry think?’ and when I got to LOCOG, I didn’t want to change that,” Deighton says. “Terry has extremely good judgment about when it’s the right thing to be tough and when it’s the right strategy to seek a compromise. And like any good lawyer, she bases her good judgment on the facts. I particularly have a high regard for her sense of humor and how she develops her team.”
In 2009, law professor emeritus Dennis Turner met his former star pupil (Miller graduated first in her 1977 class) when he took 25 current students to England on a study abroad program. Miller spent two hours with the group.
“Students were awestruck by her demeanor and brilliance,” Turner recalls. “One student described her as ‘powerful without a hint of arrogance.’ Miller clearly promoted a team approach, even though it was clear from the respect of the other lawyers that she was very much in charge.”
Turner remembers the student Miller as having “a maturity and a wisdom that set her apart from others — she was very self-disciplined and had confidence and poise, qualities she still has today.”
Miller came to Dayton after graduating with a degree in English from Michigan and getting married. She wrote for the Kentucky Post and National Enquirer, where she reported, among other stories, about former Ohio Gov. James Gilligan’s alleged UFO sighting.
“It was not a career-enhancing move for him, but I made so much money out of that,” jokes Miller. “I did that and then went to law school because a law school was starting up at Dayton and I thought, ‘Why not?’ I had covered a big court case in Kentucky and, while watching the trial, thought, ‘I might like to do that.’”
“Terry has the deadly combo,” says former classmate Thomas Whelley ’77, now a partner at Dayton law firm Dinsmore & Shohl. “She’s incredibly bright and she works really hard. She was always prepared and worked really hard in law school. I didn’t know that her current position existed, but if you’d said she was in [Prime Minister David] Cameron’s cabinet, I wouldn’t have been at all surprised.”
Another Dayton peer, Judge Mary Donovan ’77 of the Second District Court of Appeals in Dayton, describes Miller as “an excellent writer with a keen intellect. She was focused, driven and enthusiastic — but in a very quiet way. Terry never sought the spotlight. She was also a very principled and kind person and, along with the few married women in class, helped look after crisis-stricken classmates.”
After Dayton — where she contributed to the School of Law’s newsletter and Law Review, served on the Law Review board, and clerked for a local judge — Miller got a job at the Securities and Exchange Commission in Washington, D.C.
“That was a fantastic job,” she remembers. “It was like being a reporter with subpoena power. The very first case I did involved Rev. [Sun Myung]Moon, whom I interviewed under oath, and I wasn’t even 30. It was a tremendous learning experience.”
After six years at the SEC, during which time she earned a master’s in law from Georgetown, Miller had a daughter (today a CNN producer in London) and a son (a writer/sculptor in Tel Aviv) and began working part time at Kirkpatrick and Lockhart, a firm she’d encountered in SEC cases. That position set her up to work in London after her husband took up a Times (of London) post there. Shortly after the trans-Atlantic move, Miller’s financial experience became highly desirable as London prepared for “the aftermath of big bang and the whole system of regulation,” and Goldman Sachs recruited her.
About juggling career and family, Miller speaks candidly: “You have to make decisions about your priorities, and for a chunk of my life my priority was family. I did ridiculous things. I’d go to work, come home, put the kids to bed and return to work. It helped that my husband often didn’t have to be in the office 9 to 5. After my kids grew up, work became my priority. Choices dictate your career path, so my career was an extended one — I made partner at Goldman in 2002 when I was 51. But that’s OK. It’s OK. I wouldn’t change that.
“I’ve been hugely lucky,” says Miller philosophically, adding that the 2012 Olympics are her last big adventure. After 2013, she’ll focus on riding (she wants to earn more qualifications for teaching it) as well as writing and traveling.
“I mean, to be part of the early days in Europe at Goldman Sachs — no one in 1989 would necessarily have said that Goldman would emerge as the premier investment bank in the world. And what could be luckier? I’ve been a huge sports fan my entire life and, when I was growing up in the U.S., the Olympics were this amazing event that happened only every four years. With the possible exception of snooker, there’s no sport I wouldn’t watch.
“So here you are, it’s your city, somebody you know is in charge, and you’re still vaguely compos mentis. Why wouldn’t you say, ‘Gee, I’ll throw my hat into the ring’? You would never pass up something like this. You just wouldn’t.”
Christine Fundak Rohan is a London-based writer whose work has appeared in university magazines across the U.S.No Comments
When Catholics joined the American mainstream
When Paramount Pictures’ Going My Way began unspooling at movie theaters across the nation in 1944, a new, invigorated image of Catholicism was projected onto the big screen and the American landscape. The musical comedy/drama, with Bing Crosby portraying young, wise-to-the-world Father Chuck O’Malley, was on its way to seven Academy Awards, including best picture and a best actor Oscar for Crosby.
And the image of Catholicism, conveyed and reinforced through American mass media, was continuing its shift toward a cultural center stage as the nation remade and redefined itself in the shadows of the Great Depression, the New Deal and World War II.
This changing depiction of faith — reflected in film, in print, and on radio and television — began to paint Catholicism with a New World brush, said associate professor Anthony Burke Smith in his new book, The Look of Catholics: Portrayals in Popular Culture from the Great Depression to the Cold War (University Press of Kansas, 2010).
Changing popular culture showed Catholics through a wider, less mysteriously ritualistic lens, moving them from society’s margins toward the middle of a shifting American culture. These new images depicted the hopes, dreams and values of Catholics as in step with a transitioning nation that was becoming the most powerful on Earth.
“Through film, television and photojournalism, Catholics during the 1940s and 1950s elaborated a vision of the nation that fused cultural consensus at home to ideological and military conflict abroad,” said Smith, who invested 10 years in researching and writing the book. His examination of Catholics in pop culture took him from film archives in Los Angeles to the Library of Congress and National Archives in Washington, D.C. The U.S. Catholic Collection at UD’s Roesch Library was also a fertile resource.
“Initially, I spent time focusing on analyzing film and media texts,” Smith explained. “However, I realized that in order to adequately understand not only these texts but also my broader subject, I also needed to look beyond texts into their contexts of production, promotion, as well as reception. Therefore, I had to access material that wasn’t readily available without getting into archives.”
The book’s 46 pages of notes and bibliographic material are evidence of the daunting research task that confronted the author. Summer research grants from UD, including one from the Forum for the Catholic Intellectual Tradition Today, helped make the undertaking possible.
“Working in these archives proved incredibly exciting and rewarding,” Smith said. “You learn a lot about yourself when writing a book, and I learned that I’m probably happiest when I’m in a library and archive. Of course, I also got to watch lots of great as well as obscure movies.”
The Look of Catholics positions readers in the midst of an America that was ripe for change. Economic collapse at home and looming war clouds abroad brought a re-examination of American values, from laissez-faire capitalism to perceptions of a well-functioning and equitable society, Smith writes. Catholic perspectives and cultural memories, as reflected in film and elsewhere, took their place at the table of public discussion as the nation sought to regroup, rebuild and redefine.
“Prior to the Depression, Catholics in America were viewed with suspicion and distrust,” Smith said. “A year before the economic crisis began in 1929, Al Smith, the first Irish-American Catholic to run for president, had to answer to anti-Catholic attacks. Until the 1930s, Catholics were perceived by many as being in America but not truly of America. But with the Cold War, the situation of Catholics really changes. Simply put, Catholic success in America is deeply embedded in the triumph of Cold War culture.”
The pre-Depression alienation of immigrant Catholics in the U.S. mirrors the experience of some American Muslim communities and other minorities today, Smith said.
“Muslims are facing religious hostility and bigotry similar to that Catholics experienced in the 19th century,” Smith said. “Like Catholics, Muslims are associated with a complex, transnational religion. For some Americans who equate the nation with certain forms of Christianity, this makes Muslims a threat to the country. It is remarkable that today the very bricks and mortar of Muslim worship — mosques or proposed mosques such as the one in New York City — have become the target of xenophobia and religious prejudice. This very much echoes the experience of Catholics. In the 19th century, Catholic structures of worship and religious practice — their churches and convents — were viewed with suspicion and attacked.”
Meanwhile, as impassioned discussions of topics such as the location of a New York City mosque play out nightly on cable TV, they push wide open the throttle of national debate, often at loud levels.
“Popular media have long played a crucial role in debates over religious and ethnic minorities, whether it be bestselling fiction of the 19th century or the Internet today,” Smith said.
“Popular culture is deeply political, an arena where images are created and disseminated to de-legitimate religious and ethnic minorities.
Popular culture also is the terrain where these same religious and ethnic minorities have in the past forged new images of themselves and their societies. Popular media is both where the ugliest, most intolerant elements of American society are displayed and where battles for a more open and just world often get waged.”
Going My Way, for which Leo McCarey — a Catholic of mixed ethnicity — won a best-director Oscar, was particularly pivotal in the acculturation of Catholics into mainstream America, Smith said. Released in the wake of films such as San Francisco (1936), Boys Town (1938) and Angels with Dirty Faces (1938), McCarey’s movie helped push Hollywood away from the bullet-riddled gangster tales of the Depression and toward a new generation of film that was riding the wave of a confident, assertive America, a nation edging toward ethnic inclusion and revitalized societal institutions. Catholic themes and imagery helped nudge film in that new direction.
Bing Crosby, who grew up in an Irish Catholic home, shattered the mold of earlier images of priests. His character, Father O’Malley, had been a jazz singer with a girlfriend before entering the priesthood. Crosby’s young, hip, energetic, confident and worldly-wise portrayal contrasted with earlier stereotypical depictions of priests as elderly and static, often uninspired and unmovable. Through the course of Going My Way, as Father O’Malley’s new way of doing business saves St. Dominic’s Parish from financial disaster and turns around a flock of youth headed for trouble, an invigorated face of the priesthood emerges. O’Malley, a younger image of an authority figure, falls in step with a future-looking America eager to shed the worn garments of the past. That O’Malley takes St. Dominic’s leadership reins from the older and largely ineffective Father Fitzgibbon drives home the point.
Helping to pave the way for such an image transformation was 1940’s San Francisco Docks, which culminated with Father Cameron (played by Robert Armstrong) bringing down a killer with a mighty and unpriestly right hook. Again, a new, robust image of the priesthood is suggested.
A number of early ’40s films advanced the message of a new Catholicism: The Fighting 69th (1940), Knute Rockne (1940), The Keys of the Kingdom (1943), God Is My Co-pilot (1943), The Fighting Sullivans (1943) and The Song of Bernadette (1943) all spoke to elements of faith.
McCarey himself went on to make The Bells of St. Mary’s (1946), a Catholic-themed sequel to Going My Way. Even his earlier romantic comedies, such as The Awful Truth (1937) and Love Affair (1939), used a Catholic sensibility to narrate redemption and change.
“Collectively, these movies marked a Catholic moment in American cinema and popular imagination,” Smith writes in his book. “The late 1930s and early 1940s saw a concentration of Catholic-marked movies, but significant differences in emphasis and theme emerged over time. Tracing the changes within these films from the ’30s to ’40s illuminates the eclipse of social consciousness in popular imagination that occurred by World War II.”
In Going My Way’s Father O’Malley, some observers see the foreshadowing of another vigorous young leader who would capture the imagination of the Cold War nation, young Sen. John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts, whose sights were set on the White House.
“The global American identity that the Cold War developed gave Catholics new legitimacy. Conversely, Catholics played a crucial role in elaborating a Cold War consensus vision of the nation,” Smith said. “Keep in mind that the most dynamic, compelling face of Cold War America in its early years was an Irish-Catholic American, John F. Kennedy.”
The work of Academy Award-winning filmmaker John Ford, an ethnic Catholic and son of Irish immigrants, also drew Smith’s attention. Through vehicles such as Doctor Bull (1933), Stagecoach (1939), How Green Was My Valley (1941), My Darling Clementine (1946) and Fort Apache (1948), Ford lassoed the romance of the Hollywood western and gently wove religious imagery and perspective into the storylines.
“Ford’s films expressed a Catholicism voiced in a ‘minor’ key,” writes Smith. “Rarely the explicit subject, Catholicism lurked beneath and within familiar stories of western frontiers and small-town communities, covertly untying the bonds that sutured Anglo-American Protestantism to American identity.”
The look of Catholics in pop culture was changing in more than just film. In print media, Henry R. Luce’s Life magazine was the publication of national record during the Depression-Cold War decades, and it, too, reflected a transitioning image of Catholics. As the nation’s benchmark of photojournalism, Life moved beyond early stereotypical depictions of Catholics kneeling in prayer or pensively clutching rosary beads to a portrait that more resembled the family next door, a family engaged in the American experience.
“My work on Life magazine proved particularly satisfying since the deeper I got into researching and writing the chapter, the more I realized I was onto something important about the role of Catholics within postwar American culture,” Smith said. “That the premier popular magazine gave such sustained attention to Catholicism demonstrated that images of Catholics had national significance and not only relevance for Catholics.”
Catholicism — in the U.S. and overseas — often found its way onto the pages of Life. Luce, king of the Life-Time-Fortune-Sports Illustrated publishing empire, was fascinated by religious stories and images, perhaps even more so after his wife, politician and playwright Clare Booth Luce, converted to Catholicism. With Life’s lens fixed upon the world, Catholics had become appealing subject matter.
As America turned the calendar to the 1940s, Henry Luce began to speak of “The American Century” to describe the nation’s emergence as a world power. In a pivotal 1941 essay, he called for a “national revitalization.” Life’s focus on Catholics often aligned with Luce’s call, offering glimpses of a new cultural formation via narrative and image presentations. As a result, Life’s pages celebrated middle-class success, citing capitalist freedom and the fundamental institutions of family, home and faith as determinants.
“Life’s portrayal of Catholics in the late 1930s had a highly voyeuristic character, as if the journalists were gazing at them with both fascination and disapproval,” Smith writes. But with Luce’s belief in an American century, that was finally changing.
A new vision of America and Catholicism appeared throughout the culture in the ’40s as Catholics were portrayed as war heroes in narratives and photographs that articulated national pride and moral strength. For example, an essay about Archbishop Francis Spellman of New York was subtitled “a great American.” The fascination and disapproval of the ’30s was replaced by a shift toward assimilation, projecting Catholics as vital and compelling contributors to an American Century moving forward in search of a national consensus and a resistance to totalitarian communism.
Photo essays in popular magazines cast a positive light on the person and institution of the papacy. Stories and images also illuminated the vitality and romanticism of a Trappist monastery in Utah and a group of youthful American Jesuits. In one memorable photograph, an altar boy leaps into the arms of his proud mother after serving his first Mass. The magazine had replaced an Old World view of Catholicism with a refocused and robust representation that signified a New World melting pot.
Meanwhile, the emergence of two new technologies — radio and television — added impetus to the changes afoot. In particular, Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, with his prime-time TV show Life Is Worth Living (1952-57) and an earlier NBC radio program, Catholic Hour (1930-50), became the popular face and voice of Catholicism. Sheen, once auxiliary bishop of New York and later bishop of Rochester, offered an upbeat, steady and guiding voice from the Depression to abate the growing fears of the emerging Cold War.
First on the DuMont TV network and later on ABC, Sheen spoke of Catholicism in terms that were accessible and understood, whether he was speaking about the challenges of interpersonal relationships or the spiritual implications of the fight against communism. In 1945, Time labeled Sheen “probably America’s best-known priest, with an audience of millions for his Sunday preaching on NBC’s Catholic Hour and fan mail of 3,000-6,000 letters a Sunday.” From 1953-58, Sheen consistently appeared on the list of the 10 most admired men in America, according to Gallup polls.
Sheen also was in demand outside the radio and TV studio, with as many as 150 speaking engagements each year. In 1935, he spoke to a gathering of 40,000 at the Eucharistic Congress at Cleveland’s Municipal Stadium. At its apex, his Life Is Worth Living reached up to 30 million viewers, and in 1952 he won an Emmy for most outstanding TV personality.
“In Sheen’s hands, religion offered psychological aid for ordinary people as they dealt with everyday problems,” Smith writes. “It gave people moral purpose and direction.”
As the nation dusted itself off from the devastating Depression and then confronted first a world war and then the uncertainties of the Cold War, Catholicism forged a new place in the American Dream through film, print, radio and TV. Along the way, a reworked America emerged — with new voices of influence making their marks within the national conversation.
“Catholic leaders responded to the crisis of capitalism during the Depression in a vigorous, intentional way,” Smith said. “The collapse of economic individualism confirmed for them the bankruptcy of modern laissez-faire capitalism. They were ready to offer alternative solutions to the economic challenge facing all Americans at the time by proposing more communitarian and cooperatist visions of society grounded in the tradition of Catholic social teaching.”
The election of Kennedy as president and the emergence of Pope John Paul II as an international media figure who helped champion the fall of communism are evidence of how national and global cultural landscapes have since evolved.
But, for Smith, this conclusion suggests another pursuit. He’s considering taking on a second research-laden book project.
“I’d like to move from The Look of Catholics into a larger project that examines Catholicism, media and politics from the Cold War to the early 21st century. This includes examining religion in film in an international realm,” he said. “European filmmakers such as Roberto Rossellini and Federico Fellini manifested great interest in religion in their projects, and the reception of those films in America raises a larger question of how those European films changed perceptions within the U.S. in the second half of the 20th century.
“This project also involves examining Pope John Paul II as the most significant religious media figure of the late 20th century and how his papacy as a media construction related to the revival of a Cold War cultural logic in America. So I’m interested in continuing to explore the inter- twining of religion, media and politics in modern culture but now more fully across national borders.”
No doubt all requiring extensive time happily spent rummaging archives near and far, not to mention watching plenty of films, popular and obscure, along the way.
Freelance writer Ken Palen lives in Butler Township, Ohio, and is an adjunct professor in UD’s department of communication.No Comments
At 15 years old, Theresa Flores ’07 became, literally, a modern-day slave when an organized crime syndicate sold the teenager’s body over and over for two years. Twenty-five years later, she’s adding her voice to a new anti-slavery movement. This is her story.
I had thought all these years that I was the only one.
I was born in Akron, Ohio, to a normal Irish, Catholic family. I grew up in what most people would consider a privileged family. I was expected to attend college; it wasn’t a matter of if but where. Over the years, I earned a bachelor’s degree at Ball State University and a master’s in counseling education at the University of Dayton.
However, none of those privileges, expectations and abilities made me immune.
I never knew the name for what happened to me. There wasn’t a word for it. In our society, we require a label for everything: our race, the part of town we live in, our hobbies and interests, our mental states of being. For 23 years, I felt I could not fully heal until I knew what to call what happened to me.
I was a bilingual social worker in my early 40s when one day a co-worker asked whether I could attend a conference in her place.
“Theresa, I signed up for this and the agency paid for it but I can’t attend,” she said. “I have a feeling you need to go to this.”
I looked at the paper she handed me. At the top of it were the words “human trafficking.” It looked interesting, so I agreed.
All that week, I kept thinking of the upcoming conference, and it weighed heavily upon my heart. The night before, I told my children that everyone had to go to school the next day because I had a very important meeting I could not miss. Sure enough, my 8-year-old son came to me the next morning and said he didn’t feel well.
“Too bad,” I said. “You have to go to school. You will be fine.”
Feeling a little guilty, I drove to the conference and sat down in the large auditorium at the State Trooper’s Training Academy in Columbus, Ohio. I listened intently to an expert in the field talk about human trafficking and read on the large overhead screen that modern-day slavery is essentially when one person uses manipulation, threats or blackmail to make another person perform a sex act in which the first person benefits financially. Within five minutes of being there that morning, I knew
why I was supposed to be there. I finally had my words.
He explained that human trafficking is the second leading crime in the world. I was immediately devastated, for I had thought all these years that I was the only one. I knew, at that moment, that it was my destiny to be at the conference and time to fully heal.
After that day, I began my journey of speaking out and sharing my horrific story with anyone willing to hear it. Because no one saved me. And honestly, who would have thought this was happening to a kid like me?
Yes, a kid like me. I had a typical family with two parents and three younger brothers. We lived in an affluent suburb of Detroit, in a home with four bedrooms and five bathrooms. I was a comfortable teenage girl with nice clothes and my own phone line in my room. I wasn’t abused, I didn’t do drugs and I wasn’t a runaway. Yet, I was vulnerable and targeted. We moved frequently because of my father’s executive job. And while it was always an adventure, we never had any extended family around, no supports and were always the new kids. There wasn’t anyone to say, “Hey, Theresa is acting different.”
At my new school, I developed a crush on a boy whom my parents had forbidden me to date. Even my friends said it was not a good idea to associate with him. But I was 15 years old, and I had a crush on him. One day, he offered me a ride home from school. I accepted, as any teenager would do. That simple decision changed my life forever.
I ignored the red flags when he turned the wrong way out of the school parking lot and again when he pulled into his driveway and invited me in “for a moment.” I ignored my gut instinct and convinced myself that everything would be OK.
Inside, he offered me a soda to drink. I accepted it. I discovered later the drink was laced with a drug. That afternoon in what I thought was a big empty house, this young man raped me. I was devastated. Here I was, a 15-year-old Catholic virgin, a suburban teen committed to saving sexuality for marriage. As devastating as that was, it would pale in comparison with what I was about to endure for the next two years.
Little did I know that this boy’s family had strong organized crime connections, and the rape was only the first step of a broader plan they had for me.
My rape was photographed by the boy’s older cousins, who confronted me with the pictures soon after my attack. I was already broken and crushed from the rape, and now they told me they would share the pictures with my family, my priest, my classmates, with anyone, unless I “earned” them back.
They threatened me and my family, forcing me into a life of servitude and debt bondage I could hardly imagine.
Over the next two years, I was watched everywhere I went, whether at my part-time job, babysitting for friends or walking to and from school. This was the arrangement: They would summon me at any hour, on any day, and I had to appear. Sometimes they took me out of class or picked me up after school. Some nights, while my family slept behind closed bedroom doors, they called my private phone line and told me they were on the way to pick me up. I was told that I would die if I told anyone and that they would kill my family if I refused. I was terrified. Saying no was not an option.
Over and over, I was delivered to very nice homes where men waited for me. I never knew how long I would be gone, where I was or even if I would ever see my home again. All I knew was I couldn’t escape until they were finished with me.
To them, I was a nameless commodity, a service more profitable than drug-dealing. One night, after being used repeatedly, a well-dressed, older man came into the room.
He looked out of place among the typical brutes.
“What’s your name?” he asked.
I knew better than to answer, having made that mistake before, so I remained silent. The gentleman turned and asked the trafficker, “What’s her name?”
The man in charge looked disgusted and replied, “What does it matter? She has no name.”
The clean-cut man turned his saddened, pity-filled eyes to me. Then he walked out of the room.
No one saved me during this time. No one offered me any help. No one said, “Theresa, I feel as if something is wrong. Can I help you?”
Except one person. The most unlikely person reached out to me. A person I normally would have looked down on. A waitress in a dingy, inner-city, 24-hour restaurant.
It was the most horrible night of my life. Normally when I was called “into service,” the same car and driver would pick me up. However on this night, something felt different. While I waited, as usual, at around midnight for the car on the street behind my house, the hairs on my arms rose up and I got a sense of dread. When this happens to most people, perhaps while walking at night or in a parking garage, they can run, scream or call 9-1-1.
I didn’t have that option.
When the familiar car pulled up, I saw there were six men inside instead of the usual single driver. They pulled me into the car and drove me very far from home. We arrived at some dirty, nasty motel in downtown Detroit. I had only seen motels like this on television, never with my own eyes. It was smelly and had broken-down cars in front of the room doors. I was dragged from the car and into one of the rooms. I can’t explain the feeling I had being in a small, musty motel room, the only female and surrounded by two dozen older men. Here I was, now 16 years old, not sure whether I was going to leave here alive. It is a feeling no child should ever have to know.
My trafficker, who had been one of the men in the car, spoke up.
“Gentlemen, here is your reward for a job well done within our organization,” he said, gesturing toward me. “Here is an incentive to others of you. If you work hard enough, this is what you can have.”
That night, I was auctioned off to the highest bidder and passed around the room. Many hours later, after passing out from the torture, I awoke all alone and in pain. I couldn’t find my clothes, and had no shoes, no identification, no money. I had no idea where I was or what I was going to do. I was in a place of the deepest despair that many adults will never even know. And I had nowhere to turn.
The only person who helped me the entire two years of being trafficked was the waitress in the motel’s 24-hour restaurant. On a night where I, as a child, came face-to-face with the devil himself and managed to live through hell, this angel came to me to help deliver me safely to my home. She saw the red flags and noticed this young girl with no shoes and in severe shock who looked out of place.
She simply asked what no one had ever asked me: “Can I help you, honey?”
She offered me a dime to call my parents on the pay phone in the lobby. And when I couldn’t muster the strength to call my parents, most likely subjecting them to a death threat, she called the police, who took me home.
Looking back, I can see all the red flags, all the times people could have suspected something and reached out to help. My nightmare stopped only when another job transfer for my father meant another move for my family. It was a miracle that it happened before the traffickers simply didn’t return me home one night. People have no idea that this is an epidemic problem in our very own country. I have made it my mission to educate others on this issue, to tell them that slavery is alive and in their own backyards.
Yet, people have a difficult time with the word “slavery.” The definition of slavery is when a person has control over another person. If we don’t see the invisible chains and the psychological bondage, we tend not to believe it.
Arrests of teenagers trafficked into prostitution are one example. When a 16-year-old is arrested for prostitution, we need to speak out about this oxymoron. The words “teen” and “prostitute” should never be used together. Ever. What child would ever want to do this voluntarily? By definition, anyone under 18 years of age involved in prostitution is a victim of human trafficking. Yet our society is not protecting the human rights of children when they are routinely arrested and jailed for prostitution. All the while, the “john” is let go. But he is the real perpetrator and a pedophile. Why do we not see this here in our own country?
Approximately 300,000 American children are at risk of being sexually exploited right here in the U.S. And in the time it takes you to read this article, the FBI confirms there are 100,000 American children being sexually trafficked, just as I was. We may think that this is a problem only in cities like New York, Los Angeles and Las Vegas, but you might be surprised to learn that the FBI has rescued more children from Ohio who were forced into prostitution than from any other state in the U.S. They have also identified Toledo, Ohio, as the No. 1 recruitment city in the entire United States for this crime.
Unfortunately, once rescued, there are not many options for these children. These young victims need specialized care to address the psychological manipulation that traffickers impose on their minds and therapeutic interventions similar to deprogramming a victim of a cult. Many of these trafficked children are runaway youth who have no other alternatives, no other options. Currently, there are only 39 beds in the entire country to serve American children who have been trafficked. They are located at three residential facilities in Los Angeles, Atlanta and New York City. The problem of trafficking, however, isn’t limited to those cities.
I am involved in opening a new shelter in Ohio that will provide a safe place for a small handful of these young victims. It will offer them a chance to heal and an opportunity to be a kid again. Gracehaven will be a long-term, therapeutic, residential group home that houses 10 girls under the age of 18. It will be not only the fourth shelter opening in the country, but it will also be the first faith-based home. We at Gracehaven believe that a strong spiritual component is essential to the healing process. Mind, body and soul must be treated in order for the person to become fully rehabilitated from this horror. We will offer educational assistance, life skills training, medical care and ongoing counseling. Additionally, Gracehaven is currently training therapeutic foster families to provide another option for a trafficked child, so that when our home is at capacity, there will still be alternatives available to them.
People often ask how I’ve managed to heal. For many years, no one wanted to listen to my story and no one understood. A place like Gracehaven didn’t exist, and I had nowhere to turn, so at some points I stopped trying. But I desperately needed to release the trauma. The only thing I could do was to keep a journal and write. When I was done writing, I shoved it away deep down inside and tried to resume a “normal” life. I tried not to think about it, but it always seeped through as I slept. I became determined to get a counseling degree so I could help save other high school girls, so they would have someone to listen and see the red flags. All I ever wanted was to be a wife, a mother and to help those less fortunate. I refused to let my past control me any further, so for many years I had to heal all on my own. But I really wasn’t healed.
Eventually there came a point where I simply couldn’t ignore the pain and flashbacks any longer. I felt all alone. I had no one to talk to who would understand what I had endured. I tried to find counselors who could help me, but there were none trained in this issue. Things caught up with me, and I felt as if I had no alternative. Just like the girls enduring this today. It was through much prayer and God revealing His purpose for me that I started to finally heal. He brought forward the people from Gracehaven and support from others working in this field. Writing my book for others to read, being a part of something tangible like helping to start Gracehaven, and being able to give hope to others who are where I was so long ago has all helped me to finally heal. All of these things allowed me the vehicle to stop shoving away the pain and the horror, so I could now turn it into a mission called Gracehaven.
I believe that we can stop slavery once and for all. Great people throughout our country’s history have fought hard to eradicate slavery and human bondage, including Abraham Lincoln, Harriet Tubman and Martin Luther King Jr. I have faith and hope that we can stop this oppression once and for all.
But first we need to acknowledge that it is occurring here and give hope to those trapped by it. Even in the deepest, darkest moments of my past, I never lost my faith and always held on to the hope that the next time would be the last time. These men took everything from me, physically and mentally. But I was determined that they couldn’t take my spirituality away from me. That was all I had, and what enabled me to survive and now be able to turn a hell into hope for others. I had faith and hope back then, and I have faith and hope now that slavery can be stopped. It will take more than just me, though.No Comments